Alfred Wittinghofer - List of Publications#

1. Wittinghofer, A. Synthese der Schafinsulin-A-Kette mit 611-Disulfidring. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 1974, 290-505 (1974)

2. Hiskey, R.G., Wittinghofer, A., Goud, A.N. and Vunnan, R.R. Studies on the synthesis of ovine insulin. Peptides, Chemistry, Structure and Biology, Proc. of the 4th American Peptide Sym¬posium, Eds. R. Walter and J. Meienhofer, pp. 487-496 (1975)

3. Wittinghofer, A. and Leberman, R. Elongation factor T from Bacillus stearothermophilus and Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 62, 373-382 (1976)

4. Gast, W.H., Leberman, R., Schulz, G.E. and Wittinghofer, A. Crystals of partially trypsin-digested elongation factor Tu. J. Mol. Biol. 106, 943-950 (1976)

5. Leberman, R., Wittinghofer, A. and Schulz, G.E. Polymorphism in crystalline elongation factor Tu.GDP from Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 106, 951-961 (1976)

6. Gast, W.H., Kabsch, W., Wittinghofer, A. and Leberman, R. Crystals of a large tryptic fragment of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli. FEBS Letters 74, 88-90 (1977)

7. Wittinghofer, A., Warren, W.F. and Leberman, R. Structural requirements of the GDP binding site of elongation factor Tu. FEBS Letters 75, 241-243 (1977)

8. Wittinghofer, A. and Leberman, R. The effect of magnesium on some properties of nucleotide-free elongation factor Tu from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Eur. J. Biochem. 93, 95-101 (1979)

9. Wittinghofer, A. and Leberman, R. A sulphydryl group is not essential for the binding of GDP to elongation factor Tu. FEBS Letters 101, 153-156 (1979)

10. Wittinghofer, A., Frank, R., Gast, W.H. and Leberman, R. Polyphenylalanine synthesis by crystallized trypsin-modified EF-Tu.GDP. J. Mol. Biol. 132, 253-256 (1979)

11. Leberman, R., Antonsson, B., Giovanelli, R., Guariguata, R., Schumann, R. and Wittinghofer, A. A simplified procedure for the isolation of bacterial polypep¬tide elongation factor Tu. Anal. Biochem. 104, 29-36 (1980)

12. Wittinghofer, A., Frank, R. and Leberman, R. Composition and properties of trypsin-cleaved elongation factor Tu. Eur. J. Biochem. 108, 423-431 (1980)

13. Antonsson, B., Kalbitzer, H.R. and Wittinghofer, A. The binding of nucleotides and metal ions to elongation factor Tu from Bacillus stearothermophilus as studied by equilibrium dialysis. Z. physiol. Chem. 362, 735-743 (1981)

14. Pingoud, A., Block, W., Wittinghofer, A., Wolf, H. and Fischer, E. The elongation factor Tu binds aminoacyl-tRNA in the presence of GDP. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 11261-11267 (1982)

15. Wittinghofer, A., Goody, R.S., Roesch, P. and Kalbitzer, H.R. The structure of the EF-Tu.GDP.Me complex. Eur. J. Biochem. 124, 109-115 (1982)

16. Wittinghofer, A., Guariguata, R. and Leberman, R. Bacterial elongation factor Ts: Isolation and reactivity with elongation factor Tu. J. Bacteriol. 153, 1266-1271 (1983)

17. Leupold, C.M, Goody, R.S. and Wittinghofer, A. Stereochemistry of the elongation factor Tu.GTP complex. Eur. J. Biochem. 135, 237-241 (1983)

18. Kalbitzer, H.R., Goody, R.S. and Wittinghofer, A. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of Manganese(II)complexes with elonga¬tion factor Tu from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Observation of a GTP hydrolysis interme¬diate state complex. Eur. J. Biochem. 141, 591-597 (1984)

19. Kalbitzer, H.R., Leberman, R. and Wittinghofer, A. 1H-NMR spectroscopy on elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli. FEBS Letters 180, 40-42 (1985)

20. Brune, M., Schumann, R. and Wittinghofer, A. Cloning and sequencing of the adenylate kinase gene (adk) of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 7139-7151 (1985)

21. Schulz, G.E., Schiltz, E., Tomasselli, A., Frank, R., Brune, M., Wittinghofer, A. and Schirmer, R.H. Structural relationships in the adenylate kinase family. Eur. J. Biochem. 161, 127-132 (1986)

22. Tucker, J., Sczakiel, G., Feuerstein, J., John, J., Goody, R.S. and Wittinghofer, A. Expression of p21 proteins in Escherichia coli and stereochemistry of the nucleotide binding site. EMBO J. 5, 1351-1358 (1986)

23. Klaus, W., Schlichting, I., Goody, R.S., Wittinghofer, A., Rösch, P. and Holmes, K.C. 31P-NMR studies on ATP.Mg2+, p21.nucleotide and adenylate ki¬nase.nucleotide complexes. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 367, 781-786 (1986)

24. Rösch, P. Wittinghofer, A., Tucker, J., Sczakiel, G., Leberman, R. and Schlichting, I. 31P-NMR spectra of the Ha-ras p21.nucleotide complexes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 135, 549-555 (1986)

25. Feuerstein, J., Kalbitzer, H.R., John, J., Goody, R.S. and Wittinghofer, A. Characterisation of the metal-ion-GDP complex at the active sites of transforming and nontransforming p21 proteins by observation of the 17O-Mn superhyperfine coupling and by kinetic methods. Eur. J. Biochem. 162, 49-55 (1987)

26. Maeda, K., Sczakiel, G. and Wittinghofer, A. Characterisation of cDNA coding for the complete light meromyosin portion of rabbit fast skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain. Eur. J. Biochem. 167, 97-102 (1987)

27. Sczakiel, G., Wittinghofer, A. and Tucker, J. An efficient expression vector (pPLEX) for bacterial expression of non-fusion proteins and protein domains. Nucleic Acids Res. 15, 1878 (1987)

28. Feuerstein, J., Goody, R.S. and Wittinghofer, A. Preparation and characterization of nucleotide-free and metal ion-free p21 "Apoprotein". J. Biol. Chem. 262, 8455-8458 (1987)

29. John, J., Frech, M. and Wittinghofer, A. Biochemical properties of Ha-ras encoded p21 mutants and mechanism of the auto¬phosphorylation reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11792-11799 (1988)

30. Schlichting, I., Wittinghofer, A. and Rösch, P. Proton NMR studies of the GDP.Mg2+ complex of the Ha-Ras onco¬gene product p21. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 150, 444-448 (1988)

31. Reinstein, J., Brune, M. and Wittinghofer, A. Mutations in the nucleotide binding loop of adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 27, 4712-4720 (1988)

32. Pingoud, A., Wehrmann, M., Pieper, U., Gast, F.U., Urbanke, C., Alves, J., Feuerstein, J. and Wittinghofer, A. Spectroscopic and hydrodynamic studies reveal structural differences in normal and transforming H-ras gene products. Biochemistry 27, 4735-4740 (1988)

33. Bock, I., Reinstein, J., Brune, M., Wittinghofer, A. and Rösch, P. Proton-nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the aromatic spin systems of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase. J. Mol. Biol. 200, 745-748 (1988)

34. Scherer, A., John, J., Linke, R., Goody, R.S., Wittinghofer, A., Pai, E.F. and Holmes, K.C. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human c-H-ras-oncogene product p21 complexed with GTP analogues. J. Mol. Biol. 206, 257-259 (1989)

35. Maeda, K., Sczakiel, G., Hofmann, W., Menetret, J.-F. and Wittinghofer, A. Expression of native rabbit light meromyosin in E.coli. Obser¬vation of a powerful inter¬nal translation initiation site. J. Mol. Biol. 205, 269-273 (1989)

36. Borasio, G.D., John, J., Wittinghofer, A., Barde, Y-A., Sendtner, M. and Heumann, R. Ras p21 protein promotes survival and fiber outgrowth of cultured embryonic neu¬rons. Neuron 2, 1087-1096 (1989)

37. Reinstein. J., Gilles, A.-M., Rose, T., Wittinghofer, A., Saint Girons, I., Barzu, O., Surewicz, W.K. and Mantsch, H.H. Structural and catalytic role of arginine 88 in Escherichia coli adenylate kinase as evi¬denced by chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 8107-8112 (1989)

38. Haase, G.H.W., Brune, M., Reinstein, J., Pai, E.F., Pingoud, A. and Wittinghofer, A. Adenylate kinases from thermosensitive Escherichia coli strains. J. Mol. Biol. 207, 151-162 (1989)

39. John, J., Schlichting, I., Schiltz, E., Rösch, P. and Wittinghofer, A. C-terminal truncation of p21H preserves crucial kinetic and structural properties. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13086-13092 (1989)

40. Schlichting, I., Rapp, G., John, J., Wittinghofer, A., Pai, E.F. and Goody, R.S. Biochemical and crystallographic characterization of a complex of c-Ha-ras P21 and caged GTP with flash photolysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 7687-7690 (1989)

41. Pai, E.F., Kabsch, W., Krengel, U., Holmes, K.C., John, J. and Wittinghofer, A. Structure of the guanine nucleotide binding domain of the H-ras oncogene product p21 in the triphosphate conformation. Nature 341, 209-214 (1989)

42. Vetter, I.R., Schlichting, I., Wittinghofer, A., Goody, R.S. and Rösch, P. NMR studies of protein-nucleotide interactions: p21 and adenylate kinase. Bulletin of Magnetic Resonance 11, 203-209 (1989)

43. Schlichting, I., John, J., Frech, M., Chardin, P., Wittinghofer, A. and Rösch, P. Proton NMR studies of transforming and nontransforming H-ras p21 mutants. Biochemistry 29, 504-511 (1990)

44. Frech, M., Schlichting, I., Wittinghofer, A. and Chardin, P. Guanine nucleotide binding properties of the mammalian RalA protein produced in E.coli. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 6353-6359 (1990)

45. Reinstein, J., Schlichting, I. and Wittinghofer, A. Structurally and catalytically important residues in the phosphate binding loop of adenylate kinase. Biochemistry 29, 7451-7459 (1990)

46. Reinstein, J., Vetter, I.R., Schlichting, I., Rösch, P., Wittinghofer, A. and Goody, R.S. Fluorescence and NMR investigations on the ligand binding properties of adenylate kinases. Biochemistry 29, 7440-7450 (1990)

47. Kalbitzer, H.R., Feuerstein, J., Goody, R.S. and Wittinghofer, A. Stereochemistry and lifetime of the GTP hydrolysis intermediate at the active site of elongation factor Tu from Bacillus stearothermophilus as inferred from the 17O-55Mn superhyperfine interaction. Eur. J. Biochem. 188, 355-359 (1990)

48. John, J., Sohmen, R., Feuerstein, J., Linke, R., Wittinghofer, A. and Goody, R.S. Kinetics of interaction of nucleotides with nucleotide free H-ras p21. Biochemistry 29, 6058-6065 (1990)

49. Pai, E.F., Krengel, U., Petsko, G.A., Goody, R.S., Kabsch, W., Wittinghofer, A. Refined crystal structure of the triphosphate conformation of H-ras p21 at 1.35Å re¬solution: implications for the mechanism of GTP hydrolysis. EMBO J. 9, 2351-2359 (1990)

50. Frech, M., John, J., Pizon, V., Chardin, P., Tavitian, A., Clark, R., McCormick, F. and Wittinghofer, A. Inhibition of GTPase activating protein stimulation of Ras-p21 GTPase by the Krev-1 gene product. Science 249, 169-171 (1990)

51. Schlichting, I., Almo, S., Rapp, G., Wilson, K., Petratos, K., Lentfer, A., Wittinghofer, A., Kabsch, W., Pai, E.F., Petsko, G.A. and Goody, R.S. Time resolved X-ray structural studies on H-ras p21: Identification of the conforma¬tional change induced by GTP hydrolysis. Nature 345, 309-315 (1990)

52. Krengel, U., Schlichting, I., Scherer, A., Schumann, R., Frech, M., John, J., Kabsch, W., Pai, E.F. and Wittinghofer, A. Threedimensional structures of H-ras p21-mutants: Molecular basis for their inability to function as signal switch molecules. Cell 62, 539-548 (1990)

53. Sarastre, M., Sibbald, P.R. and Wittinghofer, A. The P-loop: A common motif in ATP and GTP binding proteins. Trends Biochem. Sci. 15, 430-434 (1990)

54. Müller, B., Maeda, K. and Wittinghofer, A. Sequence of the myosin light chain 1/3 isolated from a rabbit fast skeletal muscle lamda library. Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 6688 (1990)

55. Maeda, K., Müller-Gerhardt, E. and Wittinghofer, A. Sequence of two isoforms of myosin light chain 2 isolated from a rabbit fast skeletal muscle lamda library. Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 6687 (1990)

56. Hescheler, J., Klinz, F.-J., Schultz, G. and Wittinghofer, A. Ras proteins activate calcium channels in a neuronal cell line. Cell. Signal. 3, 127-133 (1991)

57. Wittinghofer, F. Von einer Proteinstruktur zur Entwicklung von Antitumor-Medikamenten. Labor 2000, 63-73 (1991)

58. Maeda, K., Rösch, A., Maeda, Y., Kalbitzer, H.R. and Wittinghofer, A. Rabbit skeletal muscle myosin: Unfolded carboxyl terminus and its role in molecular assembly. FEBS Letters 281, 23-36 (1991)

59. Reinstein, J., Schlichting, I., Frech, M., Goody, R.S. and Wittinghofer, A. p21 with a Phenylalanine 28  Leucine mutation reacts normally with the GTPase activating protein GAP but is nevertheless has transforming properties. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 17700-17706 (1991)

60. Kalbitzer, H.R., Maeda, K., Rösch, A., Maeda, Y., Geyer, M., Beneike, W., Neidig, K.P. and Wittinghofer, A. C-terminal structure and motility of rabbit skeletal muscle light meromyosin (LMM) as studied by one- and two-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray small-angle scattering. Biochemistry 30, 8083-8091 (1991)

61. Serth, J., Lautwein, A., Frech, M., Wittinghofer, A. and Pingoud, A. The inhibition of the GTPase activating protein /Ha-ras interaction by acidic lipids is due to physical interaction of the C-terminal domain of the GTPase protein with mi¬cellar structures. EMBO J. 10, 1325-1330 (1991)

62. Goody, R.S., Frech, M. and Wittinghofer, A. Affinity of guanine nucleotide binding proteins for their ligands: facts and artefacts. Trends Biochem. Sci. 16, 327-329 (1991)

63. Valencia, A., Chardin, P., Wittinghofer, A. and Sander, C. The ras protein family: Evolutionary tree and role of conserved amino acids. Biochemistry 30, 4637-4648 (1991)

64. Bock-Möbius, I., Brune, M., Wittinghofer, A., Zimmermann, H., Leberman, R., Dauvergne, M.-T., Zimmermann, S., Brandmeier, B. and Rösch, P. Identificatin of valine/leucine/isoleucine and threonine/alanine/glycine proton-spin systems of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase by selective deuteration and selective proto¬nation Biochem. J. 273, 311-316 (1991)

65. Rose, T., Brune, M., Wittinghofer, A., Blay, K.L., Surewicz, W.K., Mantsch, H.H., Barzu, O. and Gilles, A.M. Structural and catalytic properties of a deletion derivative (_133-157) of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 10781-10786 (1991)

66. Kalbitzer, H.R. and Wittinghofer, A. The effect of kirromycin on the metal ion coordination in complexes of elongation factor Tu from Bacillus stearothermophilus as inferred from the 17O-55Mn super¬hyperine interaction. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1078, 133-138 (1991)

67. Wittinghofer, A. and Pai, E. The structure of ras protein: a model for a universal molecular switch. Trends Biochem. Sci. 16, 382-387 (1991)

68. Rensland, H., Lautwein, A., Wittinghofer, A. and Goody, R.S. Is there a rate limiting step before GTP cleavage by H-ras p21? Biochemistry 30, 11181-11185 (1991)

69. Wittinghofer, A., Krengel, U., John, J., Kabsch, W. and Pai, E.F. Three-dimensional structure of p21 in the active conformation and analysis of an on¬cogenic mutants. Evironm. Health Perspectives 93, 11-15 (1991)

70. Serth, J., Weber, W., Frech, M., Wittinghofer, A. and Pingoud, A. Binding of the H-ras p21 GTPase activating protein by the activated epidermal growth factor receptor leads to inhibition of the p21 GTPase activity in vitro. Biochemistry 31, 6361-6365 (1992).

71. Hahnel, Ch., Gottmann, K., Wittinghofer, A. and Lux, H.-D. p21ras oncogene protein selectively increases low-voltage-activated Ca2+-current density in embryonic chick dorsal root ganglion neurons. Eur. J. Neurosciences 4, 361-368 (1992)

72. Gideon, P., John, J., Frech, M., Lautwein, A., Clark, R., Scheffler, J.E. and Wittinghofer, A. Mutational and kinetic analysis of the GTPase-activating Protein (GAP)-p21 interac¬tion: The C-terminal domain of GAP is not sufficient for full activity. Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 2050-2056 (1992)

73. Müller, O., Frech, M., Gideon, P., Wittinghofer, A. and Schwarz, M. Differences in GTPase-activating protein activity between liver tumours and normal liver tissue in mice. Oncogene 7, 1047-1412 (1992)

74. Wolber, V., Rensland, H., Brandmeier, B., Sagemann, M., Hoffmann, R., Kalbitzer, H.R. and Wittinghofer, A. Expression, purification and biochemical characterisation of the human immundefi¬ciency virus (HIV-1) Nef Gene Product Eur. J. Biochem. 205, 1115-1121 (1992)

75. Foley, C.K., Pedersen, L.G., Charifson, P.S., Darden, T.A., Wittinghofer, A., Pai, E.F. and Anderson, M.W. Simulations of the solution structure of nucleotide-bound p21. Biochemistry 31, 4951-4959 (1992)

76. Mistou, M.-Y., Jacquet, E., Poullet, P., Rensland, H., Gideon, P., Schlichting, I., Wittinghofer, A. and Parmeggiani, A. Mapping the Ha-ras p21 regions involved in the activity of the SDC25C- domain, a guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator. EMBO J. 11, 2391-2398 (1992)

77. Wiesmüller, L. and Wittinghofer, A. Expression of the GTPase activating domain of the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene in E.coli and role of the conserved lysine residue. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10207-10210 (1992)

78. Wolber, V., Maeda, K., Schumann, R., Brandmeier, B., Wiesmüller, L. and Wittinghofer, A. A universal expression-purification system based on the coiled-coil interaction of myosin heavy chain. Biotechnology 10, 900-904 (1992)

79. Goody, R.S., Pai, E.F., Schlichting, I., Rensland, H., Scheidig, A., Franken, S. and Wittinghofer, A. Studies on the structure and mechanism of H-ras p21. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 336, 3-11 (1992) 80. Scheidig, A., Pai, E.F., Corrie, J., Reid, G.P., Schlichting, I., Wittinghofer, A. and Goody, R.S. Time resolved structural studies on H-ras p21. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 340, 263-272 (1992)

81. Wittinghofer, F. Three-dimensional structure of p21H-ras and its implications. Cancer Biology 3, 189-198 (1992)

82. John, J., Rensland, H., Schlichting, I., Vetter, I., Borasio, G.D., Goody, R.S. and Wittinghofer, A. Kinetic and structural analysis of the Mg2+-binding site of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein p21H-ras. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 923-929 (1993)

83. Franken, S.M., Scheidig, A.J., Krengel, U., Rensland, H., Lautwein, A., Geyer, M., Scheffzek, K., Goody, R.S., Kalbitzer, H.R., Pai, E.F. and Wittinghofer, A. Three-dimensional structures and properties of a transforming and a nontransforming glycine-12 mutant of p21H-ras. Biochemistry 32, 8411-8420 (1993)

84. Stouten, P.F.W., Sander, C., Wittinghofer, A. and Valencia, A. How does the switch II region of G-domains work? FEBS Letters 320, 1-6 (1993)

85. Borasio, G.D., Markus, A., Wittinghofer, A., Barde, Y.-A., and Heumann, R. Involvement of ras p21 in neurotrophin-induced response of sensory, but not sympathetic neurons. J. Cell. Biol. 121, 665-672 (1993)

86. Ligeti, E., Pizon, V., Wittinghofer, A., Gierschik, P. and Jakobs, K.H. GTPase activity of small GTP-binding proteins in HL-60 membranes is stimulated by arachidonic acid. Eur. J. Biochem. 216, 813-820 (1993)

87. Klebe, C., Nishimoto, T. and Wittinghofer, F. Functional expression in Escherichia coli of the mitotic regulator proteins p24ran and p45rcc1 and fluorescence measurements of their interaction. Biochemistry 32, 11923-11928 (1993).

88. Wittinghofer, A. From EF-Tu to p21ras and back again. Current Biology 3, 874-876 (1993)

89. Gulbins, E., Coggeshall, K.M., Langlet, C., Baier, G., Bonnefoy-Bérard, N., Burn, P., Wittinghofer, A., Katzav, S. and Altman, A. Activation of Ras in vitro and in intact fibroblasts by the Vav guanine nucleotide exchange protein. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14, 906-913 (1994)

90. Gulbins, E., Coggeshall, K.M., Baier, G., Telford, D., Langlet, C., Baier-Bitterlich, G., Bonnefoy-Berard, N., Burn, P., Wittinghofer, A., and Altman, A. Direct stimulation of Vav guanine nucleotide exchange activity for Ras by phorbol esters and diglycerides. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14, 4749-4758 (1994)

91. Wittinghofer, A. The structure of transducin Gt: More to view than just ras. Cell 76, 201-204 (1994)

92. Frech, M., Darden, T.A., Pedersen, L.G., Foley, C.K., Charifson, P.S., Anderson, M.W. and Wittinghofer, A. Role of Glutamine-61 in the hydrolysis of GTP by p21H-ras: An experimental and theoretical study. Biochemistry 33, 3237-3244 (1994)

93. Bischoff, F.R., Klebe, C., Kretschmer, J., Wittinghofer, A. and Ponstingl, H. Ran GAP1 induced GTPase activity of nuclear ras-related Ran. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2587-2591 (1994)

94. Schweins, Th. and Wittinghofer, A. Structures, interactions and relationships. Current Biology 4, 547-550 (1994)

95. Wiesmüller, L. and Wittinghofer, F. Signal transduction pathways involving ras. Cell. Signal. 6, 247-267 (1994)

96. Scheidig, A., Sanchez-Llorente, A., Lautwein, A., Pai, E.F., Corrie, J.E.T., Reid, G., Wittinghofer, A. and Goody, R.S. Crystallographic studies on p21H-ras using the synchrotron Laue method: improvement of crystal quality and monitoring of the GTPase reaction at different time points. Acta Cryst. D50, 512-520 (1994)

97. Scheffzek, K., Kabsch, W., Schlichting, I., Pai, E.F., Lautwein, A., Frech, M., Wittinghofer, A. and Goody, R.S. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of thermally unstable p21H-ras guanosine complexes. Acta Cryst. D50, 521-526 (1994)

98. Gedde-Dahl 3rd, T., Spurkland, A., Wittinghofer, A., Thorsby, E. and Gaudernack, G. T cell epitopes encompossing the mutational hot spot position 61 of p21ras. Promiscuity in ras peptide binding to HLA. Eur. J. Immunol. 24. 410-414 (1994)

99. Schweins, T., Geyer, M., Scheffzek, K., Warshel, A., Kalbitzer, H.R. and Wittinghofer A. Substrate-assisted catalysis as a mechanism for GTP hydrolysis of p21ras and other GTP-binding proteins. Nature Structural Biology 2, 36-44 (1995)

100. Rensland, H., John, J., Linke, R., Simon, I., Schlichting, I., Wittinghofer, A. and Goody, R.S. Substrate and product structural requirements for binding of nucleotides to H-ras p21: the mechanism of discrimination between guanosine and adenosine nucleotides. Biochemistry 34, 593-599 (1995)

101. Klebe, C., Bischoff, F.R., Ponstingl, H. and Wittinghofer, A. Interaction of the nuclear GTP-binding protein Ran with its regulatory proteins RCC1 and RanGAP1. Biochemistry 34, 639-647 (1995)

102. Herrmann, C., Martin, G.A. and Wittinghofer, A. Quantitative analysis of the complex between p21ras and the Ras-binding domain of the human Raf-1 protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 2901-2905 (1995)

103. Scheffzek, K., Klebe, C., Fritz-Wolf, K., Kabsch, W. and Wittinghofer, A. Crystal structure of the nuclear Ras-related protein Ran in its GDP-bound form. Nature 374, 378-381 (1995)

104. Wiesmüller, L., Scheffzek, K., Kliche, W., Goody, R.S., Wittinghofer, A. and Reinstein, J. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of UMP/CMP-kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum with the specific bisubstrate inhibitor P1-(adenosine 5´)-P5-(uridine 5´)-pentaphosphate (UP5A). FEBS Letters 363, 22-24 (1995)

105. Clarke, P.R., Klebe, C., Wittinghofer, A. and Karsenti, E. Regulation of Cdc2/cyclin B activation by Ran, a Ras-related GTPase. J. Cell Science 108, 1217-1225 (1995)

106. Becker, J., Melchior, F., Gerke, V., Bischoff, F.R., Ponstingl, H. and Wittinghofer, A. RNA1 encodes a GTPase activating protein specific for Gsp1p, the Ran/TC4 homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 11860-11865 (1995)

107. Nassar, N., Horn, G., Herrmann, C., Scherer, A., McCormick, F. and Wittinghofer, A. The 2.2 Å crystal structure of the Ras-binding domain of the serine/threonine kinase c-Raf1 in complex with Rap1A and a GTP analogue. Nature 375, 554-560 (1995)

108. Richter, MN.F., Schwemmle, M., Herrmann, C., Wittinghofer, A. and Staeheli, P. Interferon-induced MxA Protein. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 13512-13517 (1995)

109. Wittinghofer, A. and Herrmann, C. Ras-effector interactions, the problem of specificity. FEBS Letters 369, 52-56 (1995)

110. Klebe, C., Prinz, H., Wittinghofer, A. and Goody, R.S. The kinetic mechanism of Ran — nucleotide exchange catalyzed by RCC1. Biochemistry 34, 12543-12552 (1995)

111. Scheidig, A.J., Franken, S.M., Corrie, J.E.T., Reid, G.P., Wittinghofer, A., Pai, E.F., Goody, R.S. X-ray crystal structure analysis of the catalytic domain of the oncogene product p21H-ras complexed with caged GTP and mant dGppNHp. J. Mol. Biol. 253, 132-150 (1995)

112. Block, C. and Wittinghofer, A. Switching to Rac and Rho. Structure 3, 1281-1284 (1995)

113. Schmidt, G., Lenzen, C., Simon, I., Deuter, R., Cool, R.H., Goody, R.S. and Wittinghofer, A. Biochemical and biological consequences of changing the specificity of p21ras from guanosine to xanthosine nucleotides. Oncogene 12, 87-96 (1996)

113. Block, C., Janknecht, R., Herrmann, C., Nassar, N. and Wittinghofer, A. Quantitative structure-activity analysis correlating Ras/Raf interaction in vitro to Raf activation in vivo. Nature Structural Biology 3, 244-251 (1996)

114. Herrmann, C., Horn, G., Spaargaren, M. and Wittinghofer, A. Differential interaction of the Ras family GTP-binding proteins H-Ras, Rap1A and R-Ras with the putative effector molecules Raf-kinase and Ral-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 6794-6800 (1996)

115. Wittinghofer, A. Deciphering the alphabet of G proteins: the structure of the  heterotrimer. Structure 4, 357-361 (1996)

116. M.R. Ahmadian, L. Wiesmüller, A. Lautwein, F.R. Bischoff, and A. Wittinghofer Structural Differences in the Minimal Catalytic Domains of the GTPase-Activating Proteins p120GAP and Neurofibromin. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16409-16415 (1996)

117. G.D. Borasio, A. Markus, R. Heumann, C. Chezzi, A. Sampietro, A. Wittinghofer, and Silani, V. Ras p21 protein promotes survival and differentiation of human embryonic neural crest-derived cells. Neuroscience 73, 1121-1127 (1996)

118. R. Mittal, M.R. Ahmadian, R.S. Goody, and A. Wittinghofer Formation of a transition state analog of the Ras GTPase reaction by Ras•GDP, tetrafluoroaluminate and GTPase-activating proteins. Science 273, 115-117 (1996)

119. Y. Azuma, H. Seino, T. Seki, S. Uzawa, C. Klebe, T. Ohba, A. Wittinghofer, N. Hayashi, and T. Nishimoto Conserved histidine residues of RCC1 are essential for nucleotide exchange on Ran. J. Biochem. 120, 82-91 (1996)

120. N. Nassar, G. Horn, C. Herrmann, C. Block, R. Janknecht, and A. Wittinghofer Ras/Rap effector specificity determined by charge reversal. Nature Structural Biology 3, 723-729 (1996)

121. F. McCormick and A. Wittinghofer Interactions between Ras proteins and their effectors. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 7, 449-456 (1996)

122. M. Geyer, T. Schweins, C. Herrmann, T. Prisner, A. Wittinghofer, and H.R. Kalbitzer Conformational transitions in free p21H-ras and in p21H-ras complexed with the effector protein Raf-RBD and the GTPase activating protein GAP. Biochemistry 35, 10308-10320 (1996)

123. R.M.F. Wolthuis, B. Bauer, L.J. van 't Veer, A.M.M. de Vries-Smits, R.H. Cool, M. Spaargaren, A. Wittinghofer, B.M.T. Burgering, and J.L. Bos RalGDS-like factor (Rlf) is a novel Ras and Rap 1A-associating protein. Oncogene 13, 353-362 (1996)

124. T. Schweins, M. Geyer, H.R. Kalbitzer, A. Wittinghofer, and A. Warshel Linear free energy relationships in the intrinsic and GAP activating protein-stimulated guanosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis of p21ras. Biochemistry 35, 14225-14231 (1996)

125. A. Wittinghofer and N. Nassar How Ras-related proteins talk to their effectors. Trends Biochem. Sci. 21, 488-491 (1996)

126. K. Scheffzek, A. Lautwein, W. Kabsch, M.R. Ahmadian, and A. Wittinghofer Crystal structure of the GTPase-activating domain of human p120GAP and implications for the interaction with Ras. Nature 384, 591-596 (1996)

127. K. Scheffzek, A. Lautwein, A. Scherer, S. Franken, and A. Wittinghofer Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of the Ras-GTPase activating domain of human p120GAP. PROTEINS: Structure, Function, and Genetics 27, 315-318 (1997)

128. T. Schweins, K. Scheffzek, R. Aßheuer, and A. Wittinghofer The role of the metal ion in the p21ras catalysed GTP-hydrolysis: Mn2+ versus Mg2+. J. Mol. Biol. 266, 847-856 (1997)

129. M.R. Ahmadian, U. Hoffmann, R.S. Goody, and A. Wittinghofer Individual rate constants for the interaction of Ras proteins with GTPase-activating proteins determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Biochemistry 36, 4535-4541 (1997)

130. M.R. Ahmadian, R. Mittal, A. Hall, and A. Wittinghofer Aluminum Fluoride Associates with the Small guanine Nucleotide Binding Proteins. FEBS Letters 408, 315-318 (1997)

131. A. Wittinghofer, K. Scheffzek, and M.R. Ahmadian The interaction of Ras with GTPase-activating proteins. FEBS Letters 410, 63-67 (1997)

132. K. Scheffzek, M.R. Ahmadian, W. Kabsch, L. Wiesmüller, A. Lautwein, F. Schmitz, and A. Wittinghofer The Ras-RasGAP complex: Structural basis for GTPase activation and its loss in oncogenic Ras mutants. Science 277, 333-338 (1997)

133. N. van den Berghe, R.H. Cool, G. Horn, and A. Wittinghofer Biochemical characterization of C3G: an exchange factor that discriminates between Rap1 and Rap2 and is not inhibited by Rap1A(S17N). Oncogene 15, 845-850 (1997)

134. M.R. Ahmadian, P. Stege, K. Scheffzek, and A. Wittinghofer Confirmation of the arginine-finger hypothesis for the GAP-stimulated GTP-hydrolysis reaction of Ras. Nature Structural Biology 4, 686-689 (1997)

135. M. Geyer, C. Herrmann, S. Wohlgemuth, A. Wittinghofer, and H.R. Kalbitzer Structure of the Ras-binding domain of RalGEF and implications for Ras binding and signalling. Nature Structural Biology 4, 694-699 (1997)

136. J. Kuhlmann, I. Macara, and A. Wittinghofer Dynamic and equilibrium studies on the interaction of Ran with its effector RanBP1. Biochemistry 36, 12027-12035 (1997)

137. A. Wittinghofer Signaling mechanistics: Aluminum fluoride for molecule of the year. Current Biology 7, R682-R685 (1997)

138. H. Waldmann, M. Schelhaas, E. Nägele, J. Kuhlmann, A. Wittinghofer, H. Schroeder, and J.R. Silvius Chemoenzymatic synthesis of fluorescent N-Ras lipopeptides and their use in membrane localization studies in vivo. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 36, 2238-2241 (1997)

139. B.K. Jaitner, J. Becker, T. Linnemann, C. Herrmann, A. Wittinghofer,, and C. Block Discrimination of amino acids mediating Ras binding from noninteracting residues affecting Raf activation by double mutant analysis. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 29927-29933 (1997)

140. M. Geyer and A. Wittinghofer GEFs, GAPs, GDIs and effectors: taking a closer (3D) look at the regulation of Ras-related GTP-binding proteins. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 7, 786-792 (1997)

141. L. Renault, N. Nassar, I. Vetter, J. Becker, M. Roth, and A. Wittinghofer The 1.7 Å crystal structure of the regulator of chromosome condensation (RCC1) reveals a seven-bladed propeller. Nature 392, 97-101 (1998)

142. C. Lenzen, R.H. Cool, H. Prinz, J. Kuhlmann, and A. Wittinghofer Kinetic analysis by fluorescence of the interaction between Ras and the catalytic domain of the guanine nucleotid exchange factor Cdc25Mm Biochemistry 37, 7420-7430 (1998)

143. F. Wittinghofer Ras signalling: Caught in the act of the switch-on. Nature 394, 317-320 (1998)

144. M.G. Rudolph, P. Bayer, A. Abo, J. Kuhlmann, I. Vetter, and A. Wittinghofer The Cdc42/rac interactive binding region motif of the Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) is necessary but not sufficient for tight binding to Cdc42 and structure formation. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 18067-18076 (1998)

145. K. Scheffzek, M.R. Ahmadian, L. Wiesmüller, W. Kabsch, P. Stege, F. Schmitz, and A. Wittinghofer Structural analysis of the GAP related domain from neurofibromin and its implications. EMBO J. 17, 4313-4327 (1998)

146. A. Klose, M.R. Ahmadian, M. Schuelke, K. Scheffzek, S. Hoffmeyer, A. Gewies, F. Schmitz, D. Kaufmann, H. Peters, A. Wittinghofer, and P. Nürnberg Selective disactivation of neurofibromin GAP activity in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Human Mol. Genet. 7, 1261-1268 (1998)

147. K. Scheffzek, M.R. Ahmadian, and A. Wittinghofer GTPase activating proteins: helping hands to complement an active site. Trends Biochem. Sci. 23, 257-262 (1998)

148. M.R. Ahmadian, K. Scheffzek, and A. Wittinghofer Are all GTP-binding proteins switched off by arginine finger? Trends Biochem. Sci. 23, 260 (1998)

150. A. Wittinghofer Signal Transduction via Ras. Biol. Chem. 379, 933-937 (1998)

151. D. Esser, B. Bauer, R.M.F. Wolthuis, A. Wittinghofer, R.H. Cool, and P. Bayer Structure determination of the Ras-binding domain of the Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rlf. Biochemistry 37, 13453-13462 (1998)

152. J.R. Sydor, M. Engelhard, A. Wittinghofer, R.S. Goody, and C. Herrmann Transient kinetic studies on the interaction of Ras and the Ras-binding domain of c-Raf-1 reveal rapid equilibration of the complex. Biochemistry 37, 14292-14299 (1998)

153. M. Daub, J. Jöckel, T. Quack, C.K. Weber, F. Schmitz, U.R. Rapp, A. Wittinghofer, and C. Block The RafC1 cysteine-rich domain contains multiple distinct regulatory epitopes which control Ras-dependent Raf activation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18, 6698-6710 (1998)

154. J. de Rooij, F.J.T. Zwartkruis, M.H.G. Verheijen, R.H. Cool, S.M.B. Nijman, A. Wittinghofer, and J.L. Bos Epac is a Rap1 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor directly activated by cyclic AMP. Nature 396, 414-416 (1998)

155. L. Renault, N. Nassar, A. Wittinghofer, M. Roth, and I.R. Vetter Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human RCC1, the regulator of chromosome condensation. Acta Crystallographica D55, 272-275, (1999)

156. N. Ostermann, M.R. Ahmadian, A. Wittinghofer, and R.S. Goody New N-2-labelled fluorescent derivatives of guanosine nucleotides and their interaction with GTP-binding proteins. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 18, 245-262 (1999)

157. I.R. Vetter, C. Nowak, T. Nishimoto, J. Kuhlmann, and A. Wittinghofer Structure of the Ran-GppNHp-RanBD1 complex: A molecular embrace and its implication for nuclear transport. Nature 398, 39-46 (1999)

158. N. van den Berghe, R.H. Cool, and A. Wittinghofer Discriminatory residues in Ras and Rap for guanine nucleotide exchange factor recognition. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 11078-11085 (1999)

159. M.G. Rudolph, A. Wittinghofer, and I.R. Vetter Nucleotide binding to the G12V-mutant of Cdc42 investigated by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy: Two different nucleotide states in one crystal. Protein Science 8, 778-787 (1999)

160. M. Schelhaas, E. Nägele, N. Kuder, B. Bader, J. Kuhlmann, A. Wittinghofer, and H. Waldmann Chemoenzymatic synthesis of biotinylated Ras peptides and their use in membrane binding studies of lipidated model proteins by surface plasmon resonance. Chem. Eur. J. 5, 1239-1252 (1999)

161. T. Linnemann, M. Geyer, B.K. Jaitner, C. Block, H.R. Kalbitzer, A. Wittinghofer, and C. Herrmann Thermodynamic and kinetic characterisation of the interaction between the Ras binding domain of AF6 and members of the Ras subfamily. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 13556-13562 (1999)

162. I.R. Vetter, T. Linnemann, S. Wohlgemuth, M. Geyer, H.R. Kalbitzer, C. Herrmann, and A. Wittinghofer Structural and biochemical analysis of Ras-effector signaling via RalGDS. FEBS Letters 451, 175-180 (1999)

163. I.R. Vetter, A. Arndt, U. Kutay, D. Görlich, and A. Wittinghofer Structural view of the Ran-Importin ß interaction at 2.3 Å resolution. Cell 97, 635-646 (1999)

164. B. Bauer, G. Mirey, I.R. Vetter, J.A. Garcia-Ranea, A. Valencia, A. Wittinghofer, J.H. Camonis, and R.H. Cool Effector recognition by the small GTP-binding proteins Ras and Ral. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 17763-17770 (1999)

165. M.R. Ahmadian, T. Zor, D. Vogt, W. Kabsch, Z. Selinger, A. Wittinghofer, and K. Scheffzek Guanosine triphosphatase stimulation of oncogenic Ras mutants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96(12), 7065-7070 (1999)

166. Y. Azuma, L. Renault, J.A. Garcia-Ranea, A. Valencia, T. Nishimoto, and A. Wittinghofer Model of the Ran-RCC1 interaction using biochemical and docking experiments. J. Mol. Biol. 289, 1119-1130 (1999)

167. R.C. Hillig, Louis Renault I.R. Vetter, T. Drell IV., A. Wittinghofer, and J. Becker The crystal structure of Rna1p: a new fold for a GTPase-activating protein Mol. Cell 3, 781-791 (1999)

168. P. Herter, C. Kuhnen, K.-M. Müller, A. Wittinghofer, and O. Müller Intracellular distribution of ß-catenin in colorectal adenomas, carcinomas and Peutz-Jeghers polyps. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 125, 297-304 (1999)

169. M. Geyer, R. Aßheuer, C. Klebe, J. Kuhlmann, J. Becker, A. Wittinghofer, and H.R. Kalbitzer Conformational states of the nuclear GTP-binding protein Ran and its complexes with the exchange factor RCC1 and the effector protein RanBP1. Biochemistry 38, 11250-11260 (1999)

170. R.H. Cool, G. Schmidt, C.U. Lenzen, H. Prinz, D. Vogt, and A. Wittinghofer The Ras mutant D119N is both dominant negative and activated. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19, 6297-6305 (1999)

171. M.G. Rudolph, C. Weise, S. Mirold, B. Hillenbrand, B. Bader, A. Wittinghofer, and W.-D. Hardt Biochemical analysis of SopE from Salmonella typhimurium, a highly efficient guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for RhoGTPases. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 30501-30509 (1999)

172. J. de Rooij, N.M. Boenink, M. van Triest, R.H. Cool, A. Wittinghofer, and J.L. Bos PDZ-GEF1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor specific for Rap1 and Rap2. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 38125-38130 (1999)

173. I.R. Horn, A. Wittinghofer, A.P. de Bruine, and H.R. Hoogenboom Selection of phage-displayed Fab antibodies on the active conformation of Ras yields a high affinity conformation-specific antibody preventing the binding of c-Raf kinase to Ras. FEBS Letters 463, 115-120 (1999)

174. I. Vetter and A. Wittinghofer Nucleoside triphosphate-binding proteins: different scaffolds to achieve phosphoryl transfer. Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics 32, 1-56 (1999)

175. Y.-M. Chook, G. Cingolani, E. Conti, M. Steward, I. Vetter, and A. Wittinghofer Pictures in cell biology. Structures of nuclear-transport components. Trends Cell Biol. 9, 310-311 (1999)

176. B. Bader, K. Kuhn, D.J. Owen, H. Waldmann, A. Wittinghofer, and J. Kuhlmann Bioorganic synthesis of lipid-modified proteins for the study of signal transduction. Nature 403, 223-226 (2000)

177. B. Prakash, G.J.K. Praefcke, L. Renault, A. Wittinghofer, and C. Herrmann Structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 representing a unique class of GTP-binding proteins. Nature 403, 567-571 (2000)

178. F. Huber, W. Gronwald, S. Wohlgemuth, C. Herrmann, M. Geyer, A. Wittinghofer, and H.R. Kalbitzer Letter to the Editor: Sequential NMR assignment of the RAS-binding domain of Byr 2. J. Biomol. NMR 16, 355-356 (2000)

179. J. de Rooij, H. Rehmann, M. van Triest, R.H. Cool, A. Wittinghofer, and J.L. Bos Mechanism of regulation of the Epac family of cAMP-dependent RapGEFs. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 20829-20836 (2000)

180. G. Schmidt and A. Wittinghofer Priming of PC12 cells for semiquantitative microinjection studies involving Ras. FEBS Letters 474, 184-188 (2000)

181. B. Prakash, L. Renault, G.J.K. Praefcke, C. Herrmann, and A. Wittinghofer Triphosphate structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 and implications for nucleotide binding and GTPase mechanism. EMBO J. 19, 4555-4564 (2000)

182. K.M.T. de Bruyn, J. de Rooij, R.M.F. Wolthuis, H. Rehmann, J. Wesenbeek, R.H. Cool, A. Wittinghofer, and J.L. Bos RalGEF2, a pleckstrin homology domain containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ral. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 29761-29766 (2000)

183. C.I. Villa Braslavsky, C. Nowak, D. Görlich, A. Wittinghofer, and J. Kuhlmann Different structural and kinetic requirements for the interaction of Ran with the Ran-binding domains from RanBP2 and Importin-ß. Biochemistry 39, 11629-11639 (2000)

184. B. Klockow, R.M. Ahmadian, C. Block, and A. Wittinghofer Oncogenic insertional mutations in the P-loop of Ras are overactive in MAP kinase signalling. Oncogene 19, 5367-5376 (2000)

185. A. Wittinghofer and H. Waldmann Ras - a molecular switch involved in tumor formation (review). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39, 4192-4214 (2000)

186. R.C. Hillig, M. Hanzal-Bayer, M. Linari, J. Becker, A. Wittinghofer, and L. Renault Structural and biochemical properties show ARL3-GDP as a distinct GTP-binding protein. Structure 8, 1239-1245 (2000)

187. M. Würtele, E. Wolf, K.J. Pederson, G. Buchwald, M.R. Ahmadian, J.T. Barbieri, and A. Wittinghofer How the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS toxin downregulates Rac. Nature Structural Biology 8, 23-26 (2001)

188. I.R. Vetter and A. Wittinghofer The guanine nucleotide-binding switch in three dimensions. Science 294, 1299-1304 (2001)

189. K. Kuhn, D.J. Owen, B. Bader, A. Wittinghofer, J. Kuhlmann, and H. Waldmann Synthesis of functional Ras lipoproteins and fluorescent derivatives. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1023-1035 (2001)

190. M. Würtele, L. Renault, J.T. Barbieri, A. Wittinghofer, and E. Wolf Structure of the ExoS GTPase activating domain. FEBS Letters 491, 26-29 (2001)

191. M. Rohrer, T.F. Prisner, O. Brügmann, H. Käss, M. Spoerner, A. Wittinghofer, and H.R. Kalbitzer Structure of the metal-water complex in Ras•GDP studied by high-field EPR spectroscopy and 31P NMR spectroscopy. Biochemistry 40, 1884-1889 (2001)

192. M.J. Riese, A. Wittinghofer, and J.T. Barbieri ADP ribosylation of Arg41 of Rap by ExoS inhibits the ability of Rap to interact with its guanine nucleotide exchange factor, C3G. Biochemistry 40, 3289-3294 (2001)

193. A. Kraemer, H.R. Rehmann, R.H. Cool, C. Theiss, J. de Rooij, J.L. Bos, and A. Wittinghofer Dynamic interaction of cAMP with the Rap guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Epac1. J. Mol. Biol. 306, 1167-1177 (2001)

194. L. Renault, J. Kuhlmann, A. Henkel, and A. Wittinghofer Structural basis for creation of the nuclear Ran•GTP gradient by chromatin-bound Regulator of Chromosome Condensation (RCC1). Cell 105, 245-255 (2001)

195. M. Spoerner, C. Herrmann, I.R. Vetter, H.R. Kalbitzer, and A. Wittinghofer Dynamic properties of the Ras switch I region and its importance for binding to effectors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4944-4949 (2001)

196. G. Buchwald, E. Hostinova, M.G. Rudolph, A. Kraemer, A. Sickmann, H.E. Meyer, K. Scheffzek, and A. Wittinghofer Conformational switch and role of phosphorylation in PAK activation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 5179-5189 (2001)

197. C. Allin, M.R. Ahmadian, A. Wittinghofer, and K. Gerwert Monitoring the GAP catalyzed H-Ras GTPase reaction at atomic resolution in real time. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 7754-7759 (2001)

198. M.G. Rudolph, T. Linnemann, P. Grünewald, A. Wittinghofer, I.R. Vetter, and C. Herrmann Thermodynamics of Ras/Effector and Cdc42/Effector Interactions Probed by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 23914-23921 (2001)

199. R. Gail, B. Costisella, M.R. Ahmadian, and A. Wittinghofer Ras-mediated cleavage of a GTP analogue by a novel mechanism. ChemBioChem 2, 570-575 (2001)

200. K. Scheffzek, P. Grünewald, S. Wohlgemuth, W. Kabsch, H. Tu, M. Wigler, A. Wittinghofer, and C. Herrmann The Ras-Byr2RBD complex: structural basis for Ras effector recognition in yeast. Structure 9, 1043-1050 (2001)

201. M.J. Seewald, C. Körner, A. Wittinghofer, and I.R. Vetter RanGAP mediates GTP hydrolysis without an arginine finger. Nature 415, 662-666 (2002)

202. M.R. Ahmadian, A. Wittinghofer, and G. Schmidt The actin filament architecture: tightly regulated by the cells, manipulated by pathogens. EMBO reports 3, 214-218 (2002)

203. T. Brinkmann, O. Daumke, U. Herbrand, D. Kühlmann, P. Stege, M.R. Ahmadian, and A. Wittinghofer Rap-specific GTPase Activating Protein follows an alternative mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 12525-12531 (2002)

204. M. Hanzal-Bayer, L. Renault, P. Roversi, A. Wittinghofer, and R.C. Hillig The complex of Arl2-GTP and PDE: from structure to function. EMBO J. 21, 2095-2106 (2002)

205. G. Buchwald, A. Friebel, J.E. Galán, W.-D. Hardt, A. Wittinghofer, and K. Scheffzek Structural basis for the reversible activation of a Rho protein by a bacterial toxin SopE. EMBO J. 21, 3286-3295 (2002)

206. A. Wittinghofer Obg, a G Domain with a Beautiful Extension. Structure 10, 1471-1472 (2002)

207. A. Kraemer, T. Brinkmann, I. Plettner, R. Goody, and A. Wittinghofer Fluorescently labelled Guanine Nucleotide Binding Proteins to analyse elementary steps of GAP-catalysed reactions. J. of Molecular Biology 324, 763-774 (2002)

208. E.N. Baker and A. Wittinghofer Proteins – from little acorns mighty oak trees grow (Editorial overvies). Current Opinion in Structural Biology 12, 743-745 (2002)

209. H. Rehmann, B. Prakash, E. Wolf, A. Rueppel, J. de Rooij, J.L. Bos, and A. Wittinghofer Structure of the regulation of the camp-binding domains of Epac2. Nature Structure Biology 10, 26-32 (2003)

210. H. B. Kuiperij, J. de Rooij, H.R. Rehmann, M. van Triest, , A. Wittinghofer, J.L. Bos, and F.J.T. Zwartkruis Characterisation of PDZ-GEFs, a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors specific for Rap1 and Rap2. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1593, 141-149 (2003)

211. M. Würtele, C. Jelich-Ottmann, A. Wittinghofer, and C. Oecking Structural view of a fungal toxin acting on a 14-3-3 regulatory complex. EMBO J. 22, 987-994 (2003)

212. H. Rehmann, A. Rueppel, J.L. Bos, and A. Wittinghofer Communication between the regulatory and the catalytic domain of the cAMP- responsive Rap-specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Epac. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23508-23514 (2003)

213. M.C. Schlumberger, A. Friebel, G. Buchwald, K. Scheffzek, A. Wittinghofer, and W.-D. Hardt Amino acids of the bacterial toxin SopE involved in G nucleotide exchange on Cdc42. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 27149-27159 (2003)

214. H. Rehmann, F. Schwede, S.O. Døskeland, A. Wittinghofer, and J.L. Bos Ligand-mediated activation of the cAMP-responsive guanine nucleotie exchange factor Epac. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 38548-38556 (2003)

215. M.J. Seewald, A. Kraemer, M. Farkasovsky, C. Körner, A. Wittinghofer, and I.R. Vetter Biochemical characterization of the Ran-RanBP1-RanGAP system: are RanBP proteins and the acidic tail of RanGAP required for the Ran-RanGTPase reaction? Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 8124-8136 (2003)

216. A. Shimada, M. Nyitrai, I.R. Vetter, D. Kühlmann, B. Bugyi, S. Narumiya, M.A. Geeves, and A. Wittinghofer The core FH2 domain of Diaphanous-related formins is an elongated actin binding protein that inhibits polymerization. Molecular Cell 13, 511-522 (2004)

217. O. Daumke, A. Wittinghofer, and M. Weyand Purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of human Rap1GAP. Acta Crystallographica D60, 752-754 (2004)

218. P.P. Chakrabarti, Y. Suveyzdis, A. Wittinghofer, and K. Gerwert Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy on the Rap.RapGAP reaction, GTPase activation without an Arginine Finger. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 46226-46233 (2004)

219. L. Soulère, C. Aldrich, O. Daumke, R. Gail, L. Kissau, A. Wittinghofer, and H. Waldmann Synthesis of GTP-derived Ras-Ligangs. ChemBioChem 10, 1448-1453 (2004)

220. O. Daumke, M. Weyand, P.P. Chakrabarti, I.R. Vetter, and A. Wittinghofer The GTPase-activating protein Rap1GAP uses a catalytic asparagine. Nature 429, 197-201 (2004)

221. K. Kühnel, T. Jarchau, E. Wolf, I. Schlichting, U. Walter, A. Wittinghofer, and S.V. Strelkov The VASP tetramerization domain is a right-handed coiled coil based on a 15-residue repeat. PNAS 101, 17027-17032 (2004)

222. M. Spoerner, A. Wittinghofer, and H.R. Kalbitzer Perturbation of the conformational equilibria in Ras by selective mutations as studied by 31P NMR spectroscopy. FEBS Letters 578, 305-310 (2004)

223. A. Scrima, I.R. Vetter, M.E. Armengod, and A. Wittinghofer The structure of the TrmE GTP-binding protein and its implications for tRNA modification. Embo J. 24, 23-33 (2005)

224. R. Rose, A. Wittinghofer, and M. Weyand The purification and crystallization of mDia1 in complex with RhoC. Acta Crystallographica F61, 225-227 (2005)

225. O. Rocks, A. Peyker, M. Kahms, P.J. Verveer, C. Koerner, M. Lumbierres, J. Kuhlmann, H. Waldmann, A. Wittinghofer,and P.I.H. Bastiaens An acylation cycle regulates localization and activity of palmitoylated Ras isoforms. Science 307, 1746-1752 (2005)

226. R. Gail, R. Frank, and A. Wittinghofer Systematic peptide array-based delineation of the differential ß-Catenin interaction with Tcf4, E-Cadherin and Adenomatous Polyposis Coli. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 7107-7117 (2005)

227. M. Roßbach, O. Daumke, C. Klinger. A. Wittinghofer, and M. Kaufmann Crystal structure of THEP1 from the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus: a variation of the RecA fold. BMC Structural Biology 5, 7 (2005)

228. S. Wohlgemuth, C. Kiel, A. Krämer, L. Serrano, F. Wittinghofer, and C. Herrmann Recognizing and Defining true Ras Binding Domains I: Biochemical Analysis. J. Mol. Biol. 348, 741-758 (2005)

229. C. Kiel, S. Wohlgemuth, F. Rousseau, J. Schymkowitz, J. Ferkinghoff-Borg, F. Wittinghofer, and L. Serrano Recognizing and Defining true Ras Binding Domains II: In silico prediction based on homology modelling and energy calculations. J. Mol. Biol. 348, 759-775 (2005)

230. R. Rose, M. Weyand, M. Lammers, T. Ishizaki, M.R. Ahmadian, and A. Wittinghofer Structural and mechanistic insights into the interaction between Rho and mammalian Dia. Nature 435, 513-518 (2005)

231. M. Spoerner, A. Nuehs, P. Ganser, C. Herrmann, A. Wittinghofer, and H.R. Kalbitzer Conformational states of Ras complexed with the GTP analogue GppNHp or GppCH2p: implications for the interaction with effector proteins. Biochemistry 44, 2225-2236 (2005)

232. M. Farkasovsky, P. Herter, B. Voß, and A. Wittinghofer Nucleotide binding and filament assembly of recombinant yeast septin complexes. Biol. Chem. 386, 643-656 (2005)

233. A. Berken, C. Thomas, and A. Wittinghofer A new family of RhoGEFs activates the Rop molecular switch in plants. Nature 436, 1176-1180 (2005)

234. M. Hanzal-Bayer, M. Linari, and A. Wittinghofer Properties of the interaction of Arf-like protein 2 with PDE. J. Mol. Biol. 350, 1074-1082 (2005)

235. M. Lammers, R. Rose, A. Scrima, and A. Wittinghofer The regulation of mDia1 by auto-inhibition and its release by Rho•GTP. EMBO J. 24, 4176-4187 (2005)

236. A. Wittinghofer Phosphoryl transfer in Ras proteins, conclusive or elusive? TiBS 31, 20-23 (2006)

237. H. Rehmann, J. Das, P. Knipscheer, A. Wittinghofer, and J.L. Bos Structure of the cyclic-AMP-responsive exchange factor Epac2 in its auto-inhibited state. Nature 439, 625-628 (2006)

238. K. Kühnel, S. Veltel, I. Schlichting, and A. Wittinghofer Crystal Structure of the Human Retinitis Pigmentosa 2 Protein and its Interaction with Arl3. Structure 14, 367-378 (2006)

239. A. Ghosh, G.J.K. Praefcke, L. Renault, A. Wittinghofer, and C. Herrmann How Human Guanylate Binding Protein 1 achieves assembly stimulated, processive GTP-GDP-GMP cleavage. Nature 440, 101-104 (2006)

240. S. Kupzig, D. Deaconescu, D. Bouyoucef, S.A. Walker, Q. Liu, C.L. Polte, O. Daumke, T. Ishizaki, P.J. Lockyer, A. Wittinghofer, and P.J. Cullen GAP1 family members constitute bifunctional Ras and Rap GTPase-activating proteins. J. Biol. Chemistry 281, 9891-9900 (2006)

241. C. Thomas, M. Weyand, A. Wittinghofer, and A. Berken Purification and crystallization of the catalytic PRONE doain of RopGEF8 and its complex with Rop4 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Acta Cryst. F62, 607-610 (2006)

242. A. Scrima and A. Wittinghofer Dimerisation-dependent GTPase reaction of MnmE: how potassium acts as GTPase-activating element. EMBO J. 25, 2940-2951 (2006)

243. A. Kortholt, H. Rehmann, H. Kae, L. Bosgraaf, I. Keizer-Gunnink, G. Weeks, A. Wittinghofer, and P.J.M. van Haastert Characterization of the GbpD activated Rap1 pathway regulating adhesion and cell polarity in Dictyostelium discoideum. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 23367-23376 (2006)

244. R. Gasper, A. Scrima, and A. Wittinghofer Structural Insights into HypB, a GTP-binding Protein that Regulates Metal Binding. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 27492-27502 (2006)

245. C. Kötting, M. Blessenohl, Y. Suveyzdis, R.S. Goody, A. Wittinghofer, and K. Gerwert A phosphoryl transfer intermediate in the GTPase reaction of Ras in complex with its GTPase-activating protein. PNAS 103, 13911-13916 (2006)

246. L. Brunsveld, J. Kuhlmann, K. Alexandrov, A. Wittinghofer, R.S. Goody, and H. Waldmann Lipidated Ras and Rab Peptides and Proteins – Synthesis, Structure, and Function. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 6622-6646 (2006)

247. H. Rehmann, A. Wittinghofer, and J.L. Bos Capturing cyclic nucleotides in action: snapshots from crystallographic studies. Nature Rev. MCB 8, 63-73 (2007)

248. C. Thomas, I. Fricke, A. Scrima, A. Berken, and A. Wittinghofer Structural evidence for a common intermediate in small G protein-GEF reactions. Molecular Cell 25, 141-149 (2007)

249. C. Ottmann, L. Yasmin, M. Weyand, J.L. Veesenmeyer, M.H. Diaz, R.H. Palmer, M.S. Francis, A.R. Hauser, A. Wittinghofer, and B. Hallberg Phosphorylation-independent interaction between 14-3-3 and exoenzyme S: from structure to pathogenesis. EMBO J. 26, 902-913 (2007)

250. C. Ottmann, S. Marco, N. Jaspert, C. Marcon, N. Schauer, M. Weyand, C. Vandermeeren, G. Duby, M. Boutry, A. Wittinghofer, J.-L. Rigaud, and C. Oecking Structure of a 14-3-3 coordinated hexamer of the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by combining X-ray crystallography and electron cryomicroscopy. Molecular Cell 25, 427-440 (2007)

251. P.P. Chakrabarti, O. Daumke, Y. Suveyzdis, C. Kötting, K. Gerwert, and A. Wittinghofer Insight into catalysis of a unique GTPase reaction by a combined biochemical and FTIR approach. J. Mol. Biol. 367, 983-995 (2007)

252. J.L. Bos, H. Rehmann, and A. Wittinghofer GEFs and GAPs: Critical Elements in the Control of Small G Proteins. Cell 129, 865-877 (2007)

253. R. Koller-Eichhorn, T. Marquardt, R. Gail, A. Wittinghofer, D. Kostrewa, U. Kutay, and C. Kambach Human OLA1 defines an ATPase subfamily in the OBG family of GTP-binding proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 19928-19937 (2007)

254. M. Sirajuddin, M. Farkasovsky, F. Hauer, D. Kühlmann, I. G. Macara, M. Weyand, H. Stark, and A. Wittinghofer Structural insight into filament formation by mammalian septins. Nature 449, 311-315 (2007)

255. R. Gasper, S. Meyer, A. Wittinghofer G-Proteine: Lob der zweisamkeit: neue Mechanimen der GTPase-Aktivierung. BIOspektrum 2, 128-133 (2008)

256. A. Berken, and A. Wittinghofer Structure and function of Rho-type molecular switches in plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 46, 380-393 (2008)

257. A. Scrima, C. Thomas, D. Deaconescu and A. Wittinghofer The Rap-RapGAP complex: GTP hydrolysis without catalytic glutamine and arginine residues. EMBO J. 27, 1145-1153 (2008)

258. C. Kötting, A. Kallenbach, Y. Suveyzdis, A. Wittinghofer and K. Gerwert The GAP arginine finger movement into the catalytic site of Ras reduces the activation entropy. PNAS 105, 6260-6265 (2008)

259. S. Veltel, R. Gasper, E. Eisenacher and A. Wittinghofer The retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2) gene product is a GTPase-Activating protein (GAP) for Arl3. Nature Struct Mol. Biol. 15, 373-380 (2008)

260. R. Gasper, C. Thomas, M.R. Ahmadian and A. Wittinghofer The role of the conserved switch II glutamate in Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor-mediated nucleotide exchange of GTP-binding proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 379, 51-63 (2008)

261. S. Meyer, A. Scrima, W. Versées and A. Wittinghofer Crystal structures of the conserved tRNA modifying enzyme GidA: implications for its interaction with MnmE and substrate. J. Mol. Biol. 380, 532-547 (2008)

262. S. Veltel, A. Kravchenko, S. Ismail and A. Wittinghofer Specificity of Arl2/Arl3 signaling is mediated by a ternary Arl3-effector-GAP complex. FEBS Letters 582, 2501-2507 (2008)

263. N. Schrader, C. Koerner, K. Koessmeier, J.-A. Bangert, A. Wittinghofer, R. Stoll and I.R. Vetter The crystal structure of the Ran-Nup153ZnF2 complex: a general Ran docking site at the Nuclear Pore Complex. Structure 16, 1116-1125 (2008)

264. H. Rehmann, M. Brüning, C. Berghaus, M. Schwarten, K. Köhler, H. Stocker, R. Stoll, F.J. Zwartkruis and A. Wittinghofer Biochemical characterisation of TCTP questions its function as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rheb. FEBS Letters 582, 3005-3010 (2008)

265. L. Gremer, B. Gilsbach, M.R. Ahmadian and A. Wittinghofer Fluoride complexes of oncogenic Ras mutants to study the Ras-RasGAP interaction. Biol. Chemistry 389, 1163-1171 (2008)

266. K. Gotthardt, M. Weyand, A. Kortholt, P.J.M. van Haastert, and A. Wittinghofer Structure of the RocCOR domain tandem and implications for the LRRK2 Parkinson kinase. EMBO J. 27, 2239-2249 (2008)

267. M. Lammers, S. Meyer, D. Kühlmann and A. Wittinghofer The specificity of interactions between mDIA isoforms and Rho proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 283, 35236-35246 (2008)

268. K. Uhlenbrock, M. Weiwad, R. Wetzker, G. Fischer, A. Wittinghofer and I. Rubio Reassessment of the role of FKBP38 in the Rheb/mTORC1 pathway. FEBS Letters 583, 965-970 (2009)

269. R. Gasper, S. Meyer, K. Gotthardt, M. Sirajuddin and A. Wittinghofer It takes two to tango: regulation of G proteins by dimerization. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 10, 423-429 (2009)

270. C. Ottmann, M. Weyand, T. Sassa, T. Inoue, N. Kato, A. Wittinghofer and C. Oecking A structural rationale for selective stabilization of anti-tumor interactions of 14-3-3 proteins by cotylenin A. J. Mol. Biol. 386, 913-919 (2009)

271. E. Yaman, R. Gasper, C. Koerner, A. Wittinghofer and U.H. Tazebay RasGEF1A and RasGEF1B are Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors that discriminate between Rap GTP-binding proteins and mediate Rap2-specific nucleotide exchange. FEBS J. 276, 4607-4616 (2009)

272. S. Meyer, A. Wittinghofer and W. Versees G-domain dimerization orchestrates the tRNA wobble modification reaction in the MnmE/GidA complex. J. Mol. Biol. 392, 910-922 (2009)

273. Stefan Veltel and Alfred Wittinghofer RPGR and RP2: targets for the treatment of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa? Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 13 (10), 1239-1251 (2009)

274. M. Sirajuddin, M. Farkasovsky, E. Zent and A. Wittinghofer GTP-induced conformational changes in septins and implications for function. PNAS 106, 16592-16597 (2009)

275. S. Meyer, S. Böhme, A. Krüger, H.-J. Steinhoff, J.P. Klare and A. Wittinghofer Kissing G domains of MnmE monitored by X-ray crystallography and pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. PLoSBiology 7, 1-14 (2009)

276. I.C. Cirstea, K. Kutsche, R. Dvorsky, L. Gremer, C. Carta, D. Horn, et al. A restricted spectrum of NRAS mutations causes Noonan syndrome. Nature Genetics, in press


1. Wittinghofer, A., John, J., Pai, E.F., Schlichting, I. and Rösch, P. Structural investigations on the G-binding domain of p21. In: Ras Oncogenes, D.A. Spandidos (ed.), 1989, Plenum Pub. Co., pp 297-302

2. John, J., Frech, M., Feuerstein, J., Goody, R.S. and Wittinghofer, F. Biochemical properties of Ha-Ras encoded p21 mutants. In: The Guanine-Nucleotide Binding Proteins, L. Bosch, B. Kraal, A. Parmeggiani (eds.), Plenum Press Corp.1989, pp. 209-214

3. Wittinghofer, F., Krengel, U., Schlichting, I., John, J., Frech, M., Kabsch, W. and Pai E.F. Three-dimensional structure of p21 in the active conformation and analysis of an on¬cogenic mutants. In: Origins of Human Cancer: A Comprehensive Review. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press 1991, pp. 309-318

4. Wittinghofer, A., Franken, S.M., Scheidig, A.J., Rensland, H., Lautwein, A., Pai, E.F. and Goody, R.S. Three-dimensional structure and properties of wild-type and mutant H-ras-encoded p21. In: The GTPase Superfamily. J.M. Marsh, J. Goode (eds.), Ciba Foundation Symposium 176. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester-New York-Brisbane-Toronto-Singapore 1993, pp. 6-21

5. Wittinghofer, F. Three-dimensional structure of p21 and its implications. In: The ras Superfamily of GTPases. J.C. Lacal, F. McCormick (eds.), CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton-Ann Arbor-London-Tokyo 1993, pp. 37-63

6. Wittinghofer, A., Pai, E.F. and Goody, R.S. Structural and mechanistic aspects of the GTPase reaction of H-ras p21. In: GTPases in Biology I, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 108/I, B.F. Dickey, L. Birnbauer (eds.), Chapter 14, pp. 195-212 (1993)

7. Foley, C.K., Pedersen, L.G., Darden, T.A., Charifson, P.S., Wittinghofer, A. and Anderson, M.W. Molecular dynamics studies of H-ras p21-GTP. In: GTPases in Biology I, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 108/I, B.F. Dickey, L. Birnbauer (eds.), Chapter 16, pp. 235-245 (1993)

8. Lenzen, Ch., Cool, R.H., and Wittinghofer, A. Analysis of intrinsic and CDC25-stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange of p21rasnucleotide complexes by fluorescence measurements. In: Small GTPases and their Regulators. Part A, Ras Family. W.E. Balch, C.J. Der, A. Hall, eds., Methods in Enzymology 255, 95-109 (1995)

9. Wittinghofer, A. and Valencia, A. Three-dimensional structure of Ras and Ras-related proteins. In: Guidebook to the Small GTPases. M. Zerial, L.A. Huber, eds., Sambrook Tooze Publications at Oxford University Press, 1995

10. A. Wittinghofer, K. Scheffzek and M.R. Ahmadian The interaction of Ras with GTPase-Activating Proteins and its Implications for Pharmacology. In: Signalling in the Liver. (Haussinger and Heinrich, eds.), Klüwer Academic Publishers, Falk Symposium 1998

11. K. Scheffzek and A. Wittinghofer Structures of Ras and its Complexes with Raf and GAP. In: Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit 3. G Proteins, Cytoskeleton and Cancer. (H. Maruta, K. Kohama, eds.), R.G. Landes Company, Austin, Texas, USA 1998, pp. 185-210

12. A. Wittinghofer The functioning of molecular switches in three dimensions. In: GTPases: Frontiers in Molecular Biology, ed. A. Hall, Oxford University Press, pp. 244- 298, 1999

13. K. Scheffzek and A. Wittinghofer Structural Views of the Ran GTPase Cycle. In: The Small GTPase Ran. M. Rush and P. D’Eustachio, eds., Chapter 10, Klüwer Academic Publishers, Boston-Dordrecht-London 2001, pp. 175-201

14. O. Müller and A. Wittinghofer Ras binding compounds. In: Tumor-Suppressing Viruses, Genes, and Drugs. Hiroshi Maruta, ed., Charter 15, Academic Press, San Diego – London 2001, pp. 311-327

15. M.R. Ahmadian, A. Wittinghofer, C. Herrmann Fluorescence Methods in the Study of Small GTP-binding Proteins. In: Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 189. GTPase Protocols: The Ras Superfamily. E.J. Manser, T. Leung (Eds.) The Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ, 2002

16. A. Wittinghofer Structural considerations of small GTP-binding proteins. In: Handbook of Cellular Signaling, Vol. 2, Chapter 247, eds. R.A. Bradshaw, E. Dennis. Elsevier Science (USA) 2003

Imprint Privacy policy « This page (revision-1) was last changed on Thursday, 25. February 2010, 11:49 by Kaiser Dana
  • operated by